Nazi persecutee

The artist and restorer Marianne Adler was the daughter of the journalist Heinrich Adler and the illustrator Maria Adler and the niece of the prominent Austrian Social Democrat Victor Adler.

During the Weimar Republic, the defence lawyer and legal scholar Max Alsberg, who moved to Berlin in 1906, had an office at Nollendorfplatz 1 together with Kurt Poschke, Kurt Gollnick and Lothar Welt.

Bernhard Altmann came from an orthodox Jewish family in Galicia. His maternal grandparents had a knitwear factory in Przemyśl, where he was born, managed by his mother Keile (later Karoline) Tischler before she married.

Alfred Arnstein was born in Vienna on 26 June 1886 as the son of the lawyer Emanuel Arnstein and Regina Hahn. He married Hildegard Arnstein, née Baum, in 1920.

Irma Löwenstein, née Sametz, lived with her husband Oscar (also Oskar) Löwenstein, founder of the Neues Wiener Journal at Landstraßer Hauptstraße 88 in Vienna's 3rd district.

After studying at the Vienna University of Technology, Max Baczewski was a partner with Georg Popper in the patent office H. Palm (Michalecki & Co.) at Karlsplatz 1 in Vienna's 1st district.

The engineer Samuel Bauer, the proprietor of an engineering office, was married to Gittel Breine, née Goldstein (née 1880 in Brody, Galicia). The couple lived from 1927 at Julienstraße 58 in Vienna's 18th district.

The entrepreneur Alexander Beer from Moravia lived from 1911 with his wife Adelheid née Gyurits (1867–1955) in Baden near Vienna. Over the years, he put together an extensive art collection focusing on nineteenth-century Austrian art.

Around 1900, Wilhelm Bermann moved with his wife Sidonie, née Silbermann, from Temesvár to Vienna. They lived with their four children at Kasernengasse 4 in the 6th district.

The insurance clerk and Prokurist Erich Bien obtained a doctorate in law from the University of Vienna in 1908. Because of his Jewish origins, he was dismissed from Kosmos Versicherungs AG in Vienna at the end of July 1938.

After studying law at the University of Vienna, Josef Blauhorn joined the Prager Eisenindustrie-Gesellschaft, before becoming sole Prokurist in 1916 of the Vienna bank Gebrüder Gutmann, where he worked until escaping from Austria in 1939.

Ferdinand Bloch was the youngest of six children of the sugar factory owner and banker David Bloch and his wife Marie, née Straschnow. He attended the Handelsakademie in Prague and joined the family business in 1881.

In 1913, Betty Blum married the entrepreneur Noe Blum from Poland, who had a business in Munich dealing in antiques, oil paintings, old and new furniture, gold and silverware.

In 1919, the Vienna gallery owner and art collector Lea Bondi became Prokurist (authorized signatory) of Kunsthandlung Würthle & Sohn Nachf. at Weihburggasse 9 in Vienna's 1st district.

After initially studying philosophy and law in Vienna, Ernst Buschbeck switched to art history in Berlin, Halle and Vienna and completed his education at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung (

Nachim (Nachum) Chefez, the son of Litmann Leib and Gittel Chefez, married Lea Leah (Lotte), née Heller in March 1901.

Caroline Reitlinger studied medicine at the University of Vienna for seven semesters from 1916. In July 1919 she married Edwin Czeczowiczka, an engineer and co-owner of the Erste galizische mechanische Baumwollweberei in Andrychów, Poland.

Julius Drey was born in Vienna on 1 May 1858, the son of Lazarus Drey and Babette, née Cohn. He studied in the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna and completed his doctorate in 1882.

After the death of his father Adolf Duschnitz in 1909, Willibald Duschnitz, who married Jenka, née Löff, in 1907, inherited his painting collection, a villa in the Cottageviertel in Vienna's 19th district, and the Erste Österreichisch-Ungarische Filzfabrik in Achau south of Vien

Ernst Egger was born in Vienna as the son of the industrialist Bernhard (Bela) Egger (1831–1910).

Hermann Eissler studied geology at the University of Vienna, writing his doctoral thesis in 1883 on the geological structure of the Rax Alps. Afterwards, he joined the family timber business J. Eissler & Brüder and became a partner in 1897.

After attending the Graphic Arts School in Vilna (Vilnius) from 1885 to 1888, Jehudo Epstein studied from 1888 to 1894 at the

Alois Fantl was born on 27 April 1873 in Wittingau, Bohemia (now Třeboň, Czech Republic), as the son of Karl and Therese Fantl. In 1902 he married Bertha, née Pokorny, and they had a daughter, Margarethe.

The Brno lawyer Arthur Feldmann started collecting art in the early 1920s.

Adella Taubmann arrived in Vienna in the 1920s, where she married the businessman Max Feuer in 1927, divorcing him in 1934.

After Benno Fleischmann had completed his study of art history, archaeology, philosophy and the auxiliary science of history at the University of Vienna in 1930 with a thesis on Giovanni Bellini, he worked initially as a

After leaving school, Josef Fleischner, son of a Moravian glassware factory administrator, trained to become a stenographer in the Austrian parliament and was employed there as an assistant from 1880. He quickly rose to become a parliamentary stenographer and reporter.

After his marriage to Clara Dresel (1878–1947), Julius Freund became co-proprietor in 1902 of his father-in-law's ladies' wear company Wilhelm Dresel at Niederwallstraße 13 in Berlin.

Wilhelm Freund, who was persecuted as a Jew, left Vienna in 1938 to study law in Oxford. As the only son of bank director Richard Freund (1878–1934) and Gina Freund, née Rubel (1892–1935), he was the sole heir of his parents' art collection.

Alice Friedländer was the only child of the Vienna ear specialist and university professor Adam Politzer and his wife Julie, née Rosenfeld.

Siegfried Fuchs was the son of the commercial agent Rudolf Fuchs from Deutschkreutz/Zelem and his wife Mathilde, née Grünwald. He studied law at the University of Vienna, graduating on 11 April 1908.

In 1938, Leo Fürst, who lived at Maria-Theresien-Straße 16/4

Otto von Fürth was the son of Josef Ritter von Fürth (1822–1892), a factory owner and member of the Reichsrat and the Bohemian Landtag, and Wilhelmine (1832–1904), née Forchheimer.

Frida Beck's first marriage was to Julius Ripper (1878–1916), with whom she had a daughter Edith.

Siegfried Gerstl was a Kommerzialrat and sworn commercial court expert in agricultural machines. In this function he gave talks to farmers' associations and published articles in trade journals such as the Wiener Landwirtschaftliche Zeitung.

Emil Goldmann was born in Swoikowitz, Moravia, in 1872 as the oldest of nine children of the tenant farmer Jakob Goldmann and his wife Amalie.

Rosa Glückselig, née Heitler, was married to the grocer Moritz Glückselig (1890–1974) and had two sons. She ran the delicatessen Zur Raxbahn at Neulerchenfelderstraße 27 in Ottakring, where the family also lived.

David Goldmann came from extremely modest circumstances to settle in Vienna in the early 1910s, from where he worked his way up to become director of Ujpester Tuchfabriks AG in Budapest, Wollwarenverkaufs AG in Günzelsdorf and Stoffdruckfabrik in Guntramsdorf.

Alexander Grosz was born in Neusatz (Novi Sad/Ujividek) in present-day Serbia.

The son of the academic painter August Ignatz Grósz and Henriette, née Countess Attems, studied art history, history and classical archaeology at the University of Vienna.

Elisabeth Grünbaum, the youngest of eight children, came from a well-situated Jewish family and grew up in Praterstraße in Vienna’s 2nd district.

After graduating from high school at the German k. k. Gymnasium in Brno in 1899, Franz Friedrich Grünbaum came to Vienna to study law. He took only one of the three state examinations, however, and embarked instead on a career as an actor, librettist and cabaret artist.

Moriz Grünebaum was the son of Gustav Grünebaum, k. k. Hofrat and head of the Bauabteilung der Staatsbahnen (building department of the state railways), who was made a hereditary peer in 1876.

From 1903, Ludwig Gutmann was an employee in the studio of the photographer Nikolaus Stockmann in Vienna and from 1905 a licensed photographer with premises at Währinger Straße 18 in the 9th district, where he had

The industrialist and banker Rudolf Gutmann, partner in Gebrüder Gutmann and Bankhaus Gebrüder Gutmann, owned an extensive art and book collection. He started collecting in 1906.

Marianne Hamburger-Löw was born in 1901 as the daughter of Wilhelm Löw and Franziska née Bauer. Her father owned several properties in Lower Austria, as well as a distillery. Her parents also possessed several prestigious art objects.

Arnold Harding was born in 1887 as the son of Berta (Bertha) Winterstein and David Abeles from Bohemia. He was a Czechoslovakian citizen. He had a brother Paul, born in 1882, from his mother's first marriage.

After the annexation of Austria to the Nazi German Reich, Lotte Heissfeld, daughter of the k. k.

Valerie Heissfeld, née Kulka, was the fifth of six children of Leopold Kulka (1838–1909) and Charlotte Kulka, née Scheuer (died 1892).

Otto Herschel came from a Bohemian Jewish family from Teplitz-Schönau (now Teplice, CZ), where his father Johann was a businessman.

The transporter Paul David Herzfeld lived with his wife Stefanie at Ausstellungsstraße 45/I/14 in Vienna's 2nd district. He fled in August 1938 via Czechoslovakia to Palestine. He lived in the 1950s in Tel Aviv, where he also died.

Carl Heumann lived from 1908 in Chemnitz, where he was a banker in Bankhaus Bayer und Heinze (from 1908 Prokurist, from 1920 co-owner of the private bank) and vice-consul of Portugal.

The coin collector Leo Heymann, born in the town of Schwersenz, which with its large Jewish community was until 1918 part of the German district of Posen-Ost and in 1919 became part of Poland under the provisions o

Hugo Theodor Horwitz lived in Berlin and Vienna and was the author of articles about the history of culture and technology.

After graduating from the Staatsgymnasium in Znaim (Znojmo), Josef Hupka returned to Vienna to study law. In 1897, the year of his doctorate, he converted from Judaism to Protestantism.

The Israelitisches Blindeninstitut (Jewish Institute for the Blind) founded on the initiative of the doctor, writer, secretary and archivist of the Vienna Jewish Community (IKG Wien) Ludwig August Frankl (1810–1894

The bank clerk Emil Iwnicki and his wife Amalie, née Wunderlich (born 15 February 1893 in Przemysl), lived at Schulz-Straßnitzky-Gasse 3 in Vienna's 9th district.

Until 1938, Stefan Jellinek was an extraordinary professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Vienna.

Raoul Fernand Jellinek was the son of Emil Jellinek, a diplomat, businessman and consultant to the Daimler-Motorengesellschaft, and Rachel Carmen Jellinek, née Gogman-Azoulay.

Robert Jonas was born in 1883 in Vienna, the son of Benjamin Jonas and his wife Flora, née Spitzer, from Ballasa-Gyarmat in northern Hungary. He completed his studies in 1904 at the Niedere und Höhere Fachschule at the k. k.

Eva Ida Benjamine Kantor was the second of three children of Hugo Kantor and his wife Wilhelmine Sofie Hedwig, née Preyss von Steinbühl.

Hirsch Isaac Kauftheil moved with his parents in 1899 from Neu Sandez, Galicia, to Vienna. He became an independent jeweller in 1919 and married Olga Esriel in 1922.

Maximilian Kellner, a merchant born in Moravia, lived from 1932 with his wife Katharina, called Käthe (née Pollatschek, born 1884), at Praterstraße 17 in Vienna's 2nd district.

In the official documents, there are three businesses registered under the name Albert Kende in the time before the annexation of Austria, starting in 1904.

Julius Kien was born in Uherský Ostroh, Moravia, as the third of six children. His family is thought to have moved to Vienna before the turn of the century. He owned a commercial agency on today's Rooseveltplatz in Vienna.

Heinrich Klang was born in Vienna, the son of James (formerly Jacob Moses) Klang, director general of the k. 

Albert Klein was born in present-day Slovakia. He and his wife Szidonie were Jewish and lived at the latest from 1903 in Vienna, where Klein was a timber merchant.

Johann, known as Hans, Klinkhoff was the illegitimate child of Emma Kikinis and Max Singer, official supplier of horses to the court.

The valuable interior furnishings of Alice and Arnold Kolb at Margaretenstraße 78 in Vienna's 5th district, including works by Josef Danhauser and Carl Schweninger, were listed in 1922 by the

Hermann Emanuel Kolisch was the son of the banker Robert Kolisch and his wife Paula, née Löw. His father had a private art collection in the parental apartment at Porzellangasse 9 in Vienna's 9th district.

Hans Körbel moved in the early 1920s with his parents and younger brother Robert Körbel from Bielitz (now Bielsko-Biala) in Silesia to Vienna, where they lived at Neulinggasse 18 in the 3rd district.

Hans Peter Kraus was born in Vienna on 12 October 1907 as the son of Emil and Hilda Kraus (née Rix). After graduating from the Handelsakademie in 1925, he trained as a librarian from 1925 to 1927 at Universitätsbuchhandlung R. Lechner in Vienna.

The Viennese art historian Ernst Kris worked as researcher from 1927 to 1938 in the Collection of Sculpture, Arts and Crafts

Ernst Moriz Kronfeld was a doctor of botany and worked, after his habilitation had been refused three times by the University of Vienna, as a culture journalist and editor for various Viennese newspapers, such as the Fremdenblatt and Neues Wiener Tagblatt.

Adele Kulka was born in Fulnek, Moravia, as the fourth of six children of Leopold Kulka (1838–1909) and Charlotte Kulka, née Scheuer (died 1892). She remained unmarried and childless.

Anna Kutscher from Galicia was the widow of the businessman Josef Kutscher (1880–1933). After the annexation of Austria she was considered under Nazi law to be a Jew and subject to the regime's restrictions.

Richard Lányi was born in Vienna as a Hungarian citizen on 9 December 1884. He originally had the surname Löwy. His parents Leopold Löwy and Johanna, née Spitzer, were from Pressburg, at the time administered by Hungary.

After his father's death in 1922, Hans Leinkauf took over Speditionsgeschäft Josef J. Leinkauf in Helferstorferstraße in Vienna's 1st district.

Cäcilie Rosenthal married the lawyer Josef Lilienthal from Zurawno, Galicia, in Lemberg (now Lviv) in 1911. They had three children: Sylvia Lilith, Ricarda Antonia Eleonora and Karl René.

After Moritz Lindemann had worked as a goldsmith and jewel designer and then as a quick-sketch artist in Viennese and Berlin cabarets, he opened his own art dealership specializing in Old Masters in Vienna in 1911.

After working in the early 1920s as Prokurist (authorized signatory) in Hans Neumann's advertising studio, Otto Löbl opened Reklameatelier Otto in January 1925 at Graben 29a (Trattnerhof 2) in Vienna's 1st district, which was one of the most successful commercial art st

August Loehr studied history and geography at the universities of Vienna and Heidelberg, obtaining his doctorate in 1905 with a work on Danube shipping until the end of the fourteenth century.

Richard Löwi studied in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Vienna, where he obtained his doctorate in 1905. In 1907 he opened a general practice at Novaragasse 20 in Vienna's 2nd district, where he also lived with his family.

Franz Löwy was married to Rosa (Lisl), née Rosner. The couple had two daughters, Liselotte and Marianne Franziska Löwy, married Marty. Franz Löwy began his career as a photographer in Paris and then travelled to numerous European cities to continue his training.

Max Mandl-Maldenau managed several branches of a weaving mill and leather wholesaler in Vienna and in Königinhof an der Elbe (now Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Czech Republic).

The engineer Hugo Marmorek, who from 1932 had a workshop for electrical appliances and technical articles at Brucknerstraße 4 in Vienna's 4th district, had married for a second time in 1926 to Felice Therese (née Monath), member of an art-loving family, and was registered with h

Anna Constanze Mautner, née Neumann, was married from 1909 to the ethnologist Konrad Mautner (1880–1924), a member of the Mautner family, one of the most important textile manufacturers in the Habsburg monarchy.

Karl Mayer was initially a partner in the company V. Mayer & Söhne founded by his grandfather and later an industrialist in Vienna. On 3 July 1890 he married Monika von Goldschmidt (1862–1908) and on 8 May 1891 their only son was born.

From June 1921, Chaim Salomon Meisels and his brother Mendel Meisels were proprietors of Spirituosenhandlung OHG Fa. Rosa Marmoreks Nachfolger – Brüder Meisels at Fugbachgasse 17 in Vienna's 2nd district.

Josef Morgenstern worked from the 1920s as a commercial agent and Prokurist (authorized signatory) for banks and the pipe industry in Vienna and Amsterdam. At the same time he studied political science at the University of Vienna, obtaining his doctorate in 1928.

Wilhelm Müller-Hofmann was born in Brünn / Brno and grew up in Bavaria. After graduating from the Gewerbliche Fortbildungsschule he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich.

The psychiatrist and medical historian Max Neuburger was head of the Institute of the History of Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Vienna from 1914 to 1938.

Ludwig Neurath, chairman of the board of Creditanstalt für Handel und Gewerbe and a widower since 1907, had an impressive art collection consisting of paintings, miniatures, sculptures, porcelain, furniture and a library.

Adele Pächter was married to Hermann Pächter (1839–1902), who in the 1880s ran Kunsthandlung R. Wagner in Berlin. He had made a name for himself as agent for Adolph von Menzel and in 1895 also briefly took Max Liebermann under contract.

The businessman Adalbert Bela Parlagi, registered in Vienna from 1913, married Hilda, née Hock, in December 1919. They had two children, Hedwig Elisabeth and Franz Richard. At first the family lived at Türkenstraße 25 in the 9th district.

Stefan Poglayen-Neuwall was an Austrian-Italian journalist and art historian. After being orphaned at the age of three, he was adopted by his aunt Henriette Freiin von Neuwall.

Ernst Pollack was born in Vienna as the son of Friedrich Pollak and his wife Franziska, née Fischel.

Wilhelm Pollak attended the Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt in Vienna in 1914/15 and worked from 1 March 1927 as a commercial photographer.

Georg Popper graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technische Hochschule in Vienna in 1907. He worked afterwards as a patent lawyer and later as a partner in the company H. Palm, which traded on commission.

Adolf Proksch came from a conservative Catholic background. He studied law and until the First World War he worked for the Vienna Siemens-Schuckert-Werke and thereafter for the Ministry of War.

Christine Raab worked as a civil servant from 1909, initially as a chancellery clerk in the Central Statistics Commission and later in the Ministry of Culture and Education.

Géza Radó was born in Hungary. Both he and his wife Pauline, née Blau, were Jewish and lived at the latest from 1902 in Vienna. In 1910 he became co-proprietor of Radó & Zeisler and in 1915 sole proprietor of the company.

Oskar Reichel, a Jewish doctor living in Vienna, was a major art collector. He was inspired to start collecting by the works of the Austrian painter Anton Romako, which he says he saw for the first time around 1900.

Moriz Reichenfeld worked from 1880 to 1907 at Union-Bank, becoming its Prokurist (authorized signatory) in 1890. Through his relationship to Gisela (Ella) Naschauer, a sister-in-law of Theodor Herzl, he was in close contact with Zionist circles.

After obtaining his doctorate in law at the University of Vienna in 1906, Armin Reichmann worked as a journalist for the Österreichische Volkszeitung, Morgen and Berliner Börsen-Courier.

Emil Rosner born as the only child of the antiques dealer Leo (Markus Leib) Rosner and Jenni, née Feuer, in Vienna.

Carl Julius Rothberger, son of a clothing manufacturer and founder of the Jacob Rothberger department store on Stephansplatz in Vienna, did not join the family business like his brothers Moritz, Alfred and

After his father's death in 1899, Heinrich Rothberger, who trained as a tailor and commercial manager, took over his textile company Jacob Rothberger and department store on Stephansplatz in Vienna together with his brothers Moritz and Alfred.

The Vienna-born art historian Fritz Saxl was awarded his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1912 for a thesis on Rembrandt van Rijn.

Arnold Schalita, son of Meier Schalita and Maria Schalita (née Orlova), lived from 1904 in Vienna and was married to Frieda Schalita (née Prager, born 1882). Until 1938 their home was Am Fasangarten 31 in the 12th district. Schalita became a commercial photographer in 1905.

Abraham Schein is thought to have arrived in Vienna from Russia shortly after 1900, where he worked from 1904 as a commercial photographer.

Marianne Schmidl, one of the first women ethnologists in Vienna, worked as an intern at the Vienna Museum of Folk Life and Folk Art while still a student.

Hermine Schütz was married to the doctor Emil Karel Schütz (born 1853 in Prague).

Heinrich Schwarz was the second child of the industrialist Alois Louis Schwarz and his wife Johanna, née Posamentier. Shortly after his birth, his parents, who had converted to Catholicism, moved from Prague to Vienna.

Paul Schwarzstein was an ironmonger and metal goods dealer with a business at Freilagergasse 4 in Vienna's 2nd district (today near Vivariumgasse), initially together with his partner Arthur Stemmer and then from 1922 as sole proprietor.

René Schornstein/Sennhein was born the son of Richard and Yvonne Schornstein in Baden near Vienna in 1899. The Schornstein family converted in 1903/04 from Judaism to Roman Catholicism and changed their name in 1915 from Schornstein to Sennhein.

The Jewish businessman Ernst Sonnenschein was registered in 1937/38 at Annagasse 3a/1/16 in Vienna's 1st district. While he managed to escape abroad in September 1938, his mother Josefine Sonnenschein (born 17 April 1885) was murdered near Maly Trostinec on 18 September 1942.

Anna Stein was married to Alfred Stein, who had a wine business in Vienna and was persecuted as a Jew after the annexation of Austria to the Nazi German Reich.

Europa-Musikinstrumenten-Gesellschaft Theodor Sternberg was owned by the Jewish businessman Theodor Sternberg. He moved in 1937 from Gumpendorferstraße 109 to Mariahilferstraße 53 in Vienna's 6th district.

Käthe Susmann was an Austrian writer, women's rights activist and entrepreneur. In younger years she was a governess with Oscar Edler von Hofmannsthal and around the turn of the century she was vice-president of the Erste Wiener Gabelsberger-Damen-Stenographen-Verein.

Josef Thenen was born on 21 August 1866 in Galati in present-day Romania into a Jewish merchant family. He had a sister Carolina and a brother Adolf.

Alfons Thorsch was born on 21 May 1872 in Vienna as the only son of Markus David and Anna Thorsch, née Behrend (1844–1922).

Josef Ungar was a Viennese goldsmith and jeweller from Galicia. In 1912 he opened a jeweller's shop and workshop at Trattnerhof 1 in Vienna's 1st district.

Maximilian Weinberger was married to Hermine, née Schereschewsky (born 5 November 1884 in Vienna).

Leo Weiser, recte Leiser Weisser, from Galicia, opened a mail order business with bookstore at Kaiserstraße 89 in Vienna's 7th district in January 1924, with a further outlet at Tuchlauben 5 in the 1st district from September 1929.

Oskar Weitzmann was the son of the photographer Jakob Weitzmann and Rosa, née Löwenthal. His five siblings, Berthold, Bronia, Josef, Osias and Willi Weitzmann, also worked in photography in Vienna.

Salomon Weitzmann from Mostyska, Galicia, brother of the Viennese photographer Jakob Weitzmann, worked from the mid-1880s as a photographer in Vienna and in 1892 joined the Verein photographischer Mitarbeiter (Association of Photography Employees).

The hairdresser Walter Wellek was enlisted in the Reich Labour Service from February to June 1940 before beginning training in September that year at the Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie in Vienna, which he completed in June 1943.

Flora Fränkel was born on 20 May 1868 as the third of ten children of Emil Fränkel and Mathilde, née Levi-Sulzer, in Hohenems, Vorarlberg. In 1892 she married the knitwear manufacturer Eugen Wilhelm in Hohenems, where her children Henriette and Karl were born.

Theodor Wolf was a senior official in the Ministry of Finance and lived from his retirement in 1925 until his death in 1941 at Rathausstraße 19/10 in Vienna's 1st district. He was unmarried and had no children.

Isak Wunderlich was a master tailor and lived with his wife Scheindel, née Pohl (born 24 May 1865), at Kluckygasse 15 in Vienna's 20th district. After the annexation of Austria to the National Socialist German Reich, they were persecuted as Jews.

Alfred Wolfgang von Wurzbach-Tannenberg started studying law at the University of Vienna but switched after the Second State Examination to Romance philology. He obtained his doctorate in 1902 at the University of Tübingen, and habilitated in 1907 at the University of Vienna.

Marianne Zels owned a fashion boutique in Vienna from 1899 and was technical director from 1910 to 1926 of the fashion department of the Wiener Werkstätte at Neustiftgasse 32 in Vienna's 7th district. After a short period as workshop manager at G. und E.

Paul von Zsolnay was born in Budapest in 1895 as the first son of the tobacco industrialist and Austrian consul general Adolf von Zsolnay (1866–1932) and his wife Klara Amanda, called Andy (1876–1956), née Wallerstein.