Maximilian Weinberger was married to Hermine, née Schereschewsky (born 5 November 1884 in Vienna). He was a trainee intern from March 1898 at the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (general hospital) in Vienna, before graduating from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Vienna on 21 December 1898. After his habilitation in internal medicine (1909), he worked from 1909 to 1932 as a Primararzt (senior physician) and head of the medical department of the Rudolfspital and then until 1938 in the 4th Medical Department of the Allgemeines Krankenhaus in Vienna. He was a specialist in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, internal diagnosis and therapy. He was made extraordinary professor on 22 July 1921. He was also a member of the Gesellschaft der Ärzte in Wien, Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin, neurologisch-psychiatrische Gesellschaft, Deutsche Gesellschaft für innere Medizin, Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten and Tuberkulose-Gesellschaft and until 1938 lectured in the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna.
In 1938, he lived with his family at Brucknerstraße 4 in Vienna's 4th district. He was persecuted by the Nazis on account of his Jewish origins and was required on 16 July 1938 to submit a declaration of assets to the Vermögensverkehrsstelle (Property Transaction Office), in which he listed his library, valued by Buchhandlung Minerva in Vienna at 1,200 Reichsmarks. On 26 June 1941 he fled with his wife to the USA, where he opened a medical practice in New York but never overcame his longing for his homeland and lived in seclusion until his death in 1954. His sister Adele Reismann, née Weinberger, and her daughter Julie Reismann were murdered in Theresienstadt. Maximilian and Hermine Weinberger's entire assets were confiscated by the Oberfinanzpräsident Berlin-Brandenburg-Vermögensverwertungsstelle on the basis of the Eleventh Verordnung zum Reichsbürgergesetz vom 25. November 1941 (RGBl. I, 722) (Regulation on the Reich Citizenship Law of 24 November 1941) and the movable assets put up for sale by the Dorotheum in Vienna. In 1962, Hermine Weinberger, her husband's heir, reported to the Fonds zur Abgeltung von Vermögensverlusten politisch Verfolgter (Fund for the Compensation of Losses of Assets of Political Persecutees) the loss of assets (Reichsfluchtsteuer – Reich Flight Tax) under Articles 25 and 26 (United Nations Property in Austria, and Property, Rights and Interests of Minority Groups in Austria) of the State Treaty. Maximilian Weinberger was forced to sell his private library before leaving to cover the Reich Flight Tax or had it expropriated after his flight, from where it ended up on the antiques market. Books owned by him were identified in the library of the former Institute of the History of Medicine (today Zweigbibliothek für Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien), purchased by the institute in 1941 from Antiquariat Alfred Wolf in Vienna. The heirs are currently being sought for the purpose of restitution.