Nazi asset expropriation

Alfred Arnstein was born in Vienna on 26 June 1886 as the son of the lawyer Emanuel Arnstein and Regina Hahn. He married Hildegard Arnstein, née Baum, in 1920.

Irma Löwenstein, née Sametz, lived with her husband Oscar (also Oskar) Löwenstein, founder of the Neues Wiener Journal at Landstraßer Hauptstraße 88 in Vienna's 3rd district.

Around 1900, Wilhelm Bermann moved with his wife Sidonie, née Silbermann, from Temesvár to Vienna. They lived with their four children at Kasernengasse 4 in the 6th district.

Ferdinand Bloch was the youngest of six children of the sugar factory owner and banker David Bloch and his wife Marie, née Straschnow. He attended the Handelsakademie in Prague and joined the family business in 1881.

Nachim (Nachum) Chefez, the son of Litmann Leib and Gittel Chefez, married Lea Leah (Lotte), née Heller in March 1901.

Caroline Reitlinger studied medicine at the University of Vienna for seven semesters from 1916. In July 1919 she married Edwin Czeczowiczka, an engineer and co-owner of the Erste galizische mechanische Baumwollweberei in Andrychów, Poland.

Friedrich Deutsch trained as a bank clerk and from 1926 managed a small fish shop at Servitengasse 9 in Vienna's 9th district. On 3 June 1919 he married Berta, née Hermann, and lived with her and their daughter Friederike, born in 1922, at Elisabethstraße 26 in the 1st district.

The Wiener Versatz- und Fragamt (pawn and inquiry office) Annagasse 20 / Seilerstätte 30 in the present-day 1st district of Vienna was founded by Emperor Joseph I on 14 March 1707. Its main activity was to provide loans against security, with the proceeds going to the poorhouse fund.

Julius Drey was born in Vienna on 1 May 1858, the son of Lazarus Drey and Babette, née Cohn. He studied in the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna and completed his doctorate in 1882.

After attending the Graphic Arts School in Vilna (Vilnius) from 1885 to 1888, Jehudo Epstein studied from 1888 to 1894 at the

Alois Fantl was born on 27 April 1873 in Wittingau, Bohemia (now Třeboň, Czech Republic), as the son of Karl and Therese Fantl. In 1902 he married Bertha, née Pokorny, and they had a daughter, Margarethe.

The constituting meeting of the Imperial Royal Central Commission for the Investigation and Preservation of Monuments (k. k. Central-Commission zur Erforschung und Erhaltung der Baudenkmale) established at the end of 1850 as an advisory committee took place in 1853.

Hanns Fischl was born in Brünn / Brno in 1883 and lived from 1893 in Vienna. In 1918 he left the Jewish community and converted to the Evangelical-Lutheran church. In 1927 he married Gertrude Theresia Gatscha, and lived with her in Vienna. They had two children.

Alice Friedländer was the only child of the Vienna ear specialist and university professor Adam Politzer and his wife Julie, née Rosenfeld.

Galerie Harding at Kärntnerstraße 16, 1st district of Vienna, was entered in the register of companies in 1928.

Alois Getzinger trained as a waiter and opened a junk shop at Turnergasse 28 in Vienna's 15th district. Between 1935 and 1938 he was also an expert in effects and furniture.

Rosa Glückselig, née Heitler, was married to the grocer Moritz Glückselig (1890–1974) and had two sons. She ran the delicatessen Zur Raxbahn at Neulerchenfelderstraße 27 in Ottakring, where the family also lived.

David Goldmann came from extremely modest circumstances to settle in Vienna in the early 1910s, from where he worked his way up to become director of Ujpester Tuchfabriks AG in Budapest, Wollwarenverkaufs AG in Günzelsdorf and Stoffdruckfabrik in Guntramsdorf.

Alexander Grosz was born in Neusatz (Novi Sad/Ujividek) in present-day Serbia.

Elisabeth Grünbaum, the youngest of eight children, came from a well-situated Jewish family and grew up in Praterstraße in Vienna’s 2nd district.

After graduating from high school at the German k. k. Gymnasium in Brno in 1899, Franz Friedrich Grünbaum came to Vienna to study law. He took only one of the three state examinations, however, and embarked instead on a career as an actor, librettist and cabaret artist.

From 1903, Ludwig Gutmann was an employee in the studio of the photographer Nikolaus Stockmann in Vienna and from 1905 a licensed photographer with premises at Währinger Straße 18 in the 9th district, where he had

The beginnings of the present-day Wien Museum date back to the 1860s, when the city council established a commission for municipal collections responsible for the acquisition and financing of objects for a future city museum.

Adolf Irtl studied medicine and after being awarded a doctorate in medicine and surgery in 1892 opened a medical practice at Alser Straße 16 in Vienna's 9th district.

The Israelitisches Blindeninstitut (Jewish Institute for the Blind) founded on the initiative of the doctor, writer, secretary and archivist of the Vienna Jewish Community (IKG Wien) Ludwig August Frankl (1810–1894

Raoul Fernand Jellinek was the son of Emil Jellinek, a diplomat, businessman and consultant to the Daimler-Motorengesellschaft, and Rachel Carmen Jellinek, née Gogman-Azoulay.

Robert Jonas was born in 1883 in Vienna, the son of Benjamin Jonas and his wife Flora, née Spitzer, from Ballasa-Gyarmat in northern Hungary. He completed his studies in 1904 at the Niedere und Höhere Fachschule at the k. k.

Originally from Galicia, Saul Juer lived in Vienna from 1885 at the latest. He married Helene Kanner, with whom he would later have two daughters, on 24 March 1904.

Julius Kien was born in Uherský Ostroh, Moravia, as the third of six children. His family is thought to have moved to Vienna before the turn of the century. He owned a commercial agency on today's Rooseveltplatz in Vienna.

Albert Klein was born in present-day Slovakia. He and his wife Szidonie were Jewish and lived at the latest from 1903 in Vienna, where Klein was a timber merchant.

Hans Peter Kraus was born in Vienna on 12 October 1907 as the son of Emil and Hilda Kraus (née Rix). After graduating from the Handelsakademie in 1925, he trained as a librarian from 1925 to 1927 at Universitätsbuchhandlung R. Lechner in Vienna.

Anton Lanckoroński graduated from the Schottengymnasium in Vienna and then served from 1912 to 1917 as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army. After the war and the re-establishment of the Polish state in 1918, he took Polish citizenship.

Hans Leitmeier, son of a commercial clerk, received his doctorate in mineralogy from the University of Graz in 1908.

The painter Max Liebermann, born in Berlin in 1847 as the son of the wealthy industrialist Louis Liebermann and his wife Philippine, née Haller, was one of the most important representatives of German Impressionism.

After working in the early 1920s as Prokurist (authorized signatory) in Hans Neumann's advertising studio, Otto Löbl opened Reklameatelier Otto in January 1925 at Graben 29a (Trattnerhof 2) in Vienna's 1st district, which was one of the most successful commercial art st

Richard Löwi studied in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Vienna, where he obtained his doctorate in 1905. In 1907 he opened a general practice at Novaragasse 20 in Vienna's 2nd district, where he also lived with his family.

The Vienna-born railway official Alfred Menzeles, who changed his name to Menzel in 1899, was married to Margarethe, née Kornblüh. With their two sons Hans and Otto, the family lived in Vienna's 3rd district at Rechte Bahngasse 12/3 since 1931.

Kajetan Mühlmann studied from 1913 to 1917 at the k. k. Staatslehrerbildungsanstalt in Salzburg-Stadt together with lifelong friends and future National Socialists Karl Heinrich Waggerl and Karl Springenschmid.

Richard Neumann came from a family of Austrian textile entrepreneurs.

Edith Oser-Braun came from the Braun family of entrepreneurs, who founded a bridal outfitting shop in Vienna in 1892 and, with further branches in Karlsbad and Berlin in 1914, advanced to become a supplier to the Imperial and Royal Court. The company E.

The businessman Adalbert Bela Parlagi, registered in Vienna from 1913, married Hilda, née Hock, in December 1919. They had two children, Hedwig Elisabeth and Franz Richard. At first the family lived at Türkenstraße 25 in the 9th district.

Rudolf Perlberger was the eldest son of Max and Rosalia Perlberger, née Heinrich. He had four siblings, two of whom – Ida (1884–1887) and Leo (1890–1935) – died before the annexation of Austria to the Nazi German Reich.

Georg Popper graduated in mechanical engineering from the Technische Hochschule in Vienna in 1907. He worked afterwards as a patent lawyer and later as a partner in the company H. Palm, which traded on commission.

Géza Radó was born in Hungary. Both he and his wife Pauline, née Blau, were Jewish and lived at the latest from 1902 in Vienna. In 1910 he became co-proprietor of Radó & Zeisler and in 1915 sole proprietor of the company.

Helene Richter came from a liberal, (upper) middle-class family with a Jewish background. Her father, the physician Maximilian Richter, was head of the medical service of the imperial and royal privileged Southern Railway Company, and her mother Emilie was a housewife.

The dentist Heinrich Rieger lived with his wife Berta and three children in an apartment in Vienna’s 7th district  at Mariahilferstraße 124, where he also had his dental practice.

Alexander Friedrich Ladislaus Roda Roda was born Sándor Friedrich Rosenfeld in Drnowitz, Moravia, in 1872 and grew up in Slavonia, present-day Croatia, where his father worked as an estate manager near the village of Zdenci.

Valentin Viktor Rosenfeld studied law at the University of Vienna and obtained his doctorate in 1910. As a lawyer he represented footballers in contract disputes with their clubs.

Carl Julius Rothberger, son of a clothing manufacturer and founder of the Jacob Rothberger department store on Stephansplatz in Vienna, did not join the family business like his brothers Moritz, Alfred and

Arnold Schalita, son of Meier Schalita and Maria Schalita (née Orlova), lived from 1904 in Vienna and was married to Frieda Schalita (née Prager, born 1882). Until 1938 their home was Am Fasangarten 31 in the 12th district. Schalita became a commercial photographer in 1905.

Abraham Schein is thought to have arrived in Vienna from Russia shortly after 1900, where he worked from 1904 as a commercial photographer.

Paul Schwarzstein was an ironmonger and metal goods dealer with a business at Freilagergasse 4 in Vienna's 2nd district (today near Vivariumgasse), initially together with his partner Arthur Stemmer and then from 1922 as sole proprietor.

Leopold Singer was born as a son of the Jewish merchant Wilhelm Singer and his wife Rosalie, née Klein in Vienna in 1869.

Valentine Springer was born the sixth of seven children of the banker Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild and his wife Bettina Caroline. She was considered a passionate hunter, active sportswoman and enthusiastic amateur photographer.

Sigmund Stiassny was the only son of the Viennese architect Wilhelm Stiassny (1842–1910) and his wife Julia, née Taussig (1848–1916). In 1899 he married Laura Kohnberger and had two children with her, Elisabeth (1901–1986) and Walther Stiassny (1902–1912).

Alfons Thorsch was born on 21 May 1872 in Vienna as the only son of Markus David and Anna Thorsch, née Behrend (1844–1922).

Josef Ungar was a Viennese goldsmith and jeweller from Galicia. In 1912 he opened a jeweller's shop and workshop at Trattnerhof 1 in Vienna's 1st district.

The "uncontrolled Aryanization" that took place in Austria immediately after the annexation to the National Socialist German Reich grew to such proportions that the Nazi regime felt obliged to take countermeasures.

On 1 August 1940, the Reich Ministry of the Interior issued a decree ordering the Vienna Gestapo to expropriate the assets and property stored with transport companies or in public warehouses of emigrated Jews who came under the provisions regarding the annulment of German citiz

Maximilian Weinberger was married to Hermine, née Schereschewsky (born 5 November 1884 in Vienna).

Leo Weiser, recte Leiser Weisser, from Galicia, opened a mail order business with bookstore at Kaiserstraße 89 in Vienna's 7th district in January 1924, with a further outlet at Tuchlauben 5 in the 1st district from September 1929.

Oskar Weitzmann was the son of the photographer Jakob Weitzmann and Rosa, née Löwenthal. His five siblings, Berthold, Bronia, Josef, Osias and Willi Weitzmann, also worked in photography in Vienna.

Salomon Weitzmann from Mostyska, Galicia, brother of the Viennese photographer Jakob Weitzmann, worked from the mid-1880s as a photographer in Vienna and in 1892 joined the Verein photographischer Mitarbeiter (Association of Photography Employees).

The only daughter of Gustav Freiherr von Springer and his wife Helene, Marie von Springer was born in Paris in 1886. Her first husband was Eugène Fould, a grandson of the French finance minister Achille Fould.

As one of the measures by which the Nazi German Reich pursued the gradual humiliation, expropriation, expulsion and murder of Jewish persecutees, in 1939 the Nazi regime ordered the compulsory surrender of precious metal objects, jewels and pearls.